This week we discuss the use of “lie” versus “lay,” a topic that sucks us into the realm of transitive verbs (which require an object to express a complete thought) and intransitive verbs (which don’t). Lay is a transitive verb, so it should be used with a direct object, e.g., “Lay your cards on the table.” (“Your cards” is the direct object of the verb “lay.”) Lie is an intransitive verb and does not require a direct object, e.g., “I need to lie down.”
Because that might not make a lot of sense, here’s another way to think about it. “Lay” means to place or put; so you always “lay” something, e.g.,
- Lay your book on the counter. (“Book” is the direct object of the verb “lay.”)
- Lay your hat over there. (“Hat” is the object of “lay.”)
- Now I lay me down to sleep. (“Me” is the object of “lay.”)
“Lie” means to rest on a surface—it doesn’t act on anyone or anything else, e.g.,
- Lie down on the bed.
- My pencil lies next to my bobbleheads.
Got it? Good, because now it’s time to talk about the past tense and past participle of lay and lie. (Past participles are adjectives formed from verbs.) Both of these verbs are irregular, and super confusing. So to help you keep track, here’s a chart:
VERB Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle
Lay Lay Laid Laid
Lie Lie Lay(!) Lain
As you can see, the present tense of “lay” is the past tense of “lie.” (Wait … what?) That’s one reason that English is such a hard language to learn—crazy irregular verbs. Anyway, here are examples of the past tense and past participle of “lay”:
- Yesterday, I laid my cards on the table—and lost.
- I have laid my hat on your sofa.
- Last night, I laid me down to sleep.
Here are examples of the past tense and past participle of “lie”:
- Last night, the cat lay in wait for his food.
- The cat has lain in wait for his food for hours … and hours … and hours. (Where are his people?)
That is all for now …